Compare V2 and V3 Buildpacks
A buildpack converts source code into an executable, and is used to deliver a simple, reliable, and repeatable way to create containers. Kf supports both V2 and V3 buildpacks, and it is important to understand the differences between them.
Most Cloud Foundry applications already use V2 buildpacks. When using V2 buildpacks with Kf, the lifecycle binaries and the buildpacks are downloaded and configured from their git URLs. Kf then uses the
lifecycle CLI to execute each buildpack against the source code.
- Ready out of the box without pipeline or code changes.
- Legacy buildpack supersceded by V3.
- Weaker performance and reliability. The Kf build pipeline requires more IO for V2 buildpacks.
- Fewer community resources.
- Kf only supports OSS git repos.
V3 buildpacks are a Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) project with a well defined spec, a CLI (pack) and a growing community that is innovating around different languages and frameworks. Google Cloud also has its own set of OSS buildpacks.
V3 buildpacks have two overarching OCI containers:
- Builder image
- Run image
The builder image is used while your source code is being built into a runnable container. The image has the necessary
detect scripts and other utilities to compile source code.
The run image is the base image that a container is built on. This means that it is the base image that will run when the App executes.
V3 buildpacks use layers to compose the final container. Each buildpack included in a build is given the opportunity to manipulate the file system and environment variables of the App. This layering approach allows for buildpacks to be thinner and more generic.
V3 buildpacks are built on OCI containers. This requires that the V3 builder image be stored in a container registry that the Kf build pipeline has access to. The build pipeline uses the builder image to apply the underlying scripts to build the source code into a runnable container.
- Google supported builder and run image.
- Works with various CI/CD runtimes like Cloud Build.
- Growing community and buildpack registry.
- May require code/process updates. For example, the Java buildpack requires source code while the V2 buildpack requires a jar file.
- V3 buildpacks are newer and might require additional validation (is using community developed buildpacks).
When pushing an App, the build pipeline determines the buildpack based on the selected Stack (specified via the
--stack flag or the manifest).
To see which Stacks are available in a Space first ensure a Space is targeted:
kf target -s myspace
kf stacks subcommand can then be used to list the Stacks:
The output shows both V2 and V3 Stacks:
Getting stacks in Space: myspace Version Name Build Image Run Image V2 cflinuxfs3 cloudfoundry/cflinuxfs3@sha256:5219e9e30000e43e5da17906581127b38fa6417f297f522e332a801e737928f5 cloudfoundry/cflinuxfs3@sha256:5219e9e30000e43e5da17906581127b38fa6417f297f522e332a801e737928f5 V3 kf-v2-to-v3-shim gcr.io/kf-releases/v2-to-v3:v2.7.0 gcr.io/buildpacks/gcp/run:v1 This is a stack added by the integration tests to assert that v2->v3 shim works V3 google gcr.io/buildpacks/builder:v1 gcr.io/buildpacks/gcp/run:v1 Google buildpacks (https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/buildpacks) V3 org.cloudfoundry.stacks.cflinuxfs3 cloudfoundry/cnb:cflinuxfs3@sha256:f96b6e3528185368dd6af1d9657527437cefdaa5fa135338462f68f9c9db3022 cloudfoundry/run:full-cnb@sha256:dbe17be507b1cc6ffae1e9edf02806fe0e28ffbbb89a6c7ef41f37b69156c3c2 A large Cloud Foundry stack based on Ubuntu 18.04
V2 to V3 Buildpack Migration
Kf provides a V3 stack to build applications that were built with standard V2 buildpacks, using a stack named
kf-v2-to-v3-shim stack is created following the standard V3 buildpacks API. A Google maintained builder image is created with each Kf release, following the standard buildpack process. The builder image aggregates a list of V3 buildpacks created by the same process used with the
kf wrap-v2-buildpack command. The V3 buildpack images are created using the standard V2 buildpack images. It’s important to note that the V3 buildpacks do not contain the binary of the referenced V2 buildpacks. Instead, the V2 buildpack images are referenced, and the bits are downloaded at App build time (by running
At App build time, the V2 buildpack is downloaded from the corresponding git repository. When V3 detection runs, it delegates to the downloaded V2 detection script. For the first buildpack group that passes detection, it proceeds to the build step, which delegates the build execution to the downloaded V2 builder script.
The following V2 buildpacks are supported in the
Option 1: Migrate Apps built with standard V2 buildpacks
To build Apps with the
kf-v2-to-v3-shim stack, use the following command:
kf push myapp --stack kf-v2-to-v3-shim
kf-v2-to-v3-shim stack will automatically detect the runtime with the wrapped V2 buildpacks. The resulting App image is created using the V3 standard and build pipeline, but the builder of the equivalent V2 buildpack.
Option 2: Migrate Apps built with custom V2 buildpacks
Kf has a buildpack migration tool that can take a V2 buildpack and wrap it with a V3 buildpack. The wrapped buildpack can then be used anywhere V3 buildpacks are available.
kf wrap-v2-buildpack gcr.io/your-project/v2-go-buildpack https://github.com/cloudfoundry/go-buildpack --publish
This will create a buildpack image named
gcr.io/your-project/v2-go-buildpack. It can then be used to create a builder by following the create a builder docs.
This subcommand uses the following CLIs transparently: